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Chinese History --Manchus and Imperialism: The Qing Dynasty

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Oracle bones

            These were the bone pieces that were used for divination. The practice was mostly undertaken during the Shang dynasty. These oracle bones had the earliest known significance of being the body of the old Chinese inscription. The oracle bones too were important in that they carried the Chinese historical information. This historical in formation amongst others included the absolute magnificent pedigree related to the Shang dynasty. The oracles bones were significant in that they made it possible to believe that the Shang Empire existed; a fact that was doubted by a number of scholars.

Examination system

            This was a system adopted in imperial china. It was a system set for the sake of the states system of government selection of the most qualified administrative officials.  The system was mainly aimed at the creation of intellectual bureaucrats despite of their family lineage. Its main target was to draw the public aptitude. The examination system did play a pivotal role as the academic officials who came to dominate the society were as a result of its adoption. In addition, the examination system did too contribute to the narrowing of the scholastic gap, the rational life and the emperor despotic authority. The examination system did serve in the process of the capturing and having in place the allegiance of local echelon elites. The allegiance created ensured that there was assimilation in China and the country did overcome the predisposition of regional sovereignty as well as the failure of the federal system of government. More so, the examination system ensured the maintenance of cultural unity and harmony on grounds of fundamental values.  The examination system did create cultural uniformity because all areas in china were taught on same magnitude and factors which ensured that nationalism was influenced and practiced.

Genghis Khan

            This was an personality who came to power by uniting northeast Asia nomadic tribes. He is associated to the founding of the Mongolian empire as well. Genghis Khan is attributed to the existence of the Silk Road under one cohesive opinionated administration.  He is the one who brought the Silk Road to a singled out administration as opposed to the earlier part administration. Through the integration of the Silk Road administration, trade and communication was opened up in between various parts in the west and Middle East as well as Asia. Due to such assimilation, the three areas were able to grow both economically and in expansion of the cultural districts. Genghis Khan is associated with the practice of meritocracy during his leadership. In addition, historians have argued that Genghis Khan did tolerate varied religions and made explanation of his policies to the soldiers in a clear manner.  Genghis Khan is associated with the development and economic growth of west, Middle East and Asia during his rule.

The Silk Road

            This was the most well known in antique Chinese development trading course. The creation of the silk route was to expand trade between states. This is because silk was traded internally in china and there was a need to expand trade across states. Due to the creation of Silk Road, trading between china and other states such as the Indian grew and became stronger. The growth later did extend to central Asia. The Chinese Silk Road influenced in a big way the growth and stabilization of the Chinese economy. It is through the Silk Road that there was an increment on the number of foreign merchants in china. The exposure of china and its citizens to various cultures and religion was too attributed to the Silk Road. During the height of the Silk Road, the Tang dynasty did incident the prosperous period.  This is because the Silk Road led to a sudden exchange of ideas and information a factor that influenced growth and development of china. Silk Road was thus significant to china in an overwhelming magnitude.

Tang Taizhong

            This was one of the so referred to as the greatest Chinese emperors. Through his rule, tang did flourish in both the economic platform and in the military capacity to be referred to as the strongest nation in the globe at that time. This emperor is referred ton as a rationalist who took steps towards the modification of the significant rites that governed agricultural practices and the easement of the agricultural labor burden. Emperor Tang Taizhong did influence peace and the blossoming of the nation into prosperity during his rule. This emperor did adopt new martial, land as well as excise systems and he is linked to advocating for the imperial examination system. Tang Taizhong did advocate from the talent recruiting in administrative offices and governance. In summary, Tang Taizhong did during his rule lead to economic growth, led to a stable society and ruled with an uncontaminated administration which led to in the pink and prosperous society.

PART II -- IDENTIFICATIONS: MANCHUS AND IMPERIALISM

Qianlong Emperor

            This was a foremost arts benefactor. He was the main person behind the preservation and restoration of the Chinese culture. It is during his rule that the Chinese empire is believed to have experienced mass growth in history. It is said that the empire grew to an unparalleled magnitude in the history of china. Qianlong Emperor is the leader who led to the growth of Tibet and an immense part of the central Asia; this is inclusive of the modern day Russia. It is during his ruling that the Chinese government was able to extent its political control to the various minute states of the south eastern Asia and Korea; hence china experienced significant political growth. During the peak of the Qianlong Emperor ruling, china was able to boast of having dominated eastern Asia in both the military basis and the political overcoming and cultural development. During the Qianlong Emperor ruling, the multiethnic empire of china emerged. He allowed the compromising of the traditional practices from the prior empires such as Munchu and the religious customs. This opened multiethnic china which allowed exchange of information and ideas hence significant growth was realized during the period he ruled.

The Self-Strengthening Movement

            This refers to the Chinese period of institutional reforms. These reforms were started during the Qing ruling as a result of having experienced various defeats militarily and indulgence to the unfamiliar powers. The first part of the Self-Strengthening Movement took place during the 1861 to 1872 period and was set to give emphasis to the implementation of the firearms and the contraptions in addition to the scientific knowledge and skill from the west. The Self-Strengthening Movement at this phase did too advocate for the technical training for the ambassadorial expatriates via the creation of the diplomatic academy and offices. During the second phase of the Self-Strengthening Movement, business and production as well as agriculture were the sections that were given focus. This was due to the fact that there was need to create wealth that was aimed at strengthening the nation. The third phase influenced the drugs industry as well as tall buildings and structures. Third phase of the Self-Strengthening Movement did advocate for the enrichment of the country. The Self-Strengthening Movement was significant is that it called for the country nourishment for self reliability and support.

Opium War

            The first opium war which involved fighting between United Kingdom and the Qing Empire was influenced by the conflicting perspectives between the two states on diplomatic relations and trade. The justice systems of administration too influenced the conflict. This war was set by the china government to control and stop the drain of silver and gain control over opium. It was a war that aimed at confisticating the opium supplies from the traders based on Britain.    This war was set to oppose the Britain military redress to china. The subsequent war developed the Chinese modern history.

Boxer Rebellion

            This was peasant farmer’s movement that was formed to practice boxing and callisthenic sacrament. The farmers had believed that these rituals would make them unreceptive to cartridge. The Boxer Rebellion was meant to bring an end to the ching empire and to get rid of the Chinese external authority. It is through the Boxer Rebellion that the Ching Empire was made weak and china as republic was created.

McCartney Mission

            This was the British embassy to china that was established in 1793. Named after the first Britain envoy to china flag bearer, the McCartney Mission was aimed at buying Emperor Qianlong minds so that he could withdraw restrictions that existed for trading between Britain and china. The McCartney Mission sought to secure a Britain embassy in china and to have a possession of a place were British traders could have their products stored. Such a place would also serve as an unloading point for the Britain ships and the venture was set to check the trading tariffs in china. The McCartney Mission failed in its mandate due to the vacuous and mismatched and contending global perspectives. The McCartney Mission is significant in that it is a proof of the china missing on the west accommodation opportunity. 

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