The success of any organization is dependent on several factors, and among the most fundamental is the effectiveness of the leadership/management team. If the management is speckled and ineffective in running the affairs of the organization, the organization will seldom realize its objectives. The managers have the roles of clarifying the objectives, missions, and policies of an organization, establish a structure under which the organization is run, set priorities and review objectives, maintain effective communication, secure funds, evaluate accomplishments and motivate and appraise the staff among other responsibilities (Bonoma & Slevin, 1978).
Application of Management Functions
The major functions of management include planning, organizing, leading and controlling. The success of an organization is dependent on the management’s ability to apply these functions in realization of the objectives of the organization. Regardless of whether planning is short-term or long-term; the ability to plan effectively will determine the results to be realized. Managers must identify the objectives of the organization and resources available in making appropriate planning. Effective planning has to anticipate possible problems and prepare feasible solutions (Marshall, 1992). Planning entails choosing an action-course from available alternative. Application of planning will only be possible only if the manager is able to imagine success, and identify the rout to the success.
Organization is all about setting all the tools and resources in place to facilitate production. Organization entails establishing workable relationships among resources and people to realize specified goals. Marshall (1992) observed that organization is based on 5 organizing principles: Delegation of authority, unity of command, homogeneous assignment, flexibility, and span of control. A manager needs to have a clear understanding and ability to apply all the aspects of organizing, which include chain of command, time, structure, role specification and degree of centralization.
Control encompasses keeping a check over the organization to ensure functionality. Control involves foreseeing things beforehand and taking the appropriate measures. It also entails setting standards, examining actual performance and if need be taking corrective action (Fayol, 1949). Every manager must be endowed with potentiality of controlling the subjects and the production process, taking necessary measure in time before production is hampered.
Other than application of the functions aforementioned, a manager has a role of making decisions relating to staff and running of the organization. Decisions must be wisely made based on the situations at hand. Decisions made presently affects the future of an organization. For a manager to make the most appropriate decision, he/she must be informed, knowledgeable, and exposed. The context should determine the decision making process; no fixed procedures.
Staffing is a fundamental role of management. Among the resources that determine the success of an organization is the human resource. Appropriate human resource planning will trigger the success of an organization. Staffing encompasses two major areas: Human resource planning and recruitment. Must ensure that you have the right staff on board based on their experience, skills, competence, and motivation and manage them in such a way that they will significantly affect the realization of expected end product (Pandey, 2006).
Every manager has a reporting role. Communication is very primary as far as running the affairs of organization is concerned. The manager should cultivate a communicative environment by keeping those he/she leads informed. Preparation of reports of the progress of the affairs is essential in guiding planning and decision making (Kaplan & Norton, 1996). The reports should be made public so that employees can have access to them and use them in evaluating their performance.
Dimensions of Organization’s Culture
Organization’s culture has been defined as, "a system of shared values and beliefs that produces norms of behavior and establish an organizational way of life" (Koberg & Chusmir, 1987, p.397). Every organization has a peculiar way of functioning, consequently its culture. Some of the most common dimensions of organization culture include individual autonomy, people orientation, innovation, control, and result/outcome orientation. People’s orientation reflects perceived support, mutual respect, and cooperation between organization members. Innovation indicates general openness towards change, taking risks and propensity to experiments. Control focuses on work formalization, presence of rules, and importance of hierarchy. Result orientation entails measuring of performance and productivity (Delobbe, n.d).
Evaluation of Effective Delegation Skills
Among the most important skills of management is delegation. The logical rules and techniques help a manager when delegating and when a responsibility is being delegated to you. Skillful delegation saves one’s time, and motivates, develops and grooms the people involved. If a manager lacks delegation skills, he/she will end up demoralized, frustrated and confused. For a manager to effectively delegate and evaluate delegation skills he/she must be equipped with the principles and processes of delegation. Chapman (2009) argued that a growing and thriving organization is characterized by succession, which is characterized by effective delegation skills. He/she must also be equipped with the various steps of successful delegation, which includes definition of tasks, selecting the individual, assessing training and ability needs, explanation of reasons, statement of required results, consideration of required results, agreement on deadlines, support and communicate, and feedback and results. Of equal importance in delegation is understanding the levels of delegation.
Assessment of the Importance of Mastering Effective Delegation Techniques
Chapman (2009) observed that delegation is two way. It is imperative that a manager be able to master effective delegation techniques for effective assessment of the same. Once a manager masters the right delegation skills, he can effectively assess the success of delegation and facilitate motivation, and consequently realize the expected results. Spending adequate time in careful planning on delegation with ease assessment and optimize production. Rees (1991) observed that delegation is like capital investment, “time spent setting it up may achieve substantial dividends-but only in the future” (p. 117). A manager must be equipped with the appropriate delegation techniques to effectively assess the various techniques employed within an organization based on organization’s culture.