The Individual International Philanthropy Database (IIPD)

Nonprofit organizations provide important public goods and services in societies across the world. In times of economic crisis, when governments are forced to decrease public spending, these organizations become even more important in meeting demands for these goods and services. But what motivates individuals across societies to voluntarily give away portions of their own financial resources to benefit the public good and to enable nonprofit organizations to carry out their work? Why are nonprofit organizations much more omnipresent and successful in some countries than in others?

The Palgrave Handbook of Global Philanthropy (edited by Pamala Wiepking and Femida Handy) is a comprehensive reference guide to the practice of philanthropy and the nonprofit sector across twenty-six nations and regions. In addition, thematic chapters examine cross-national issues to provide an indispensable guide to the latest research in this field. Drawing on theoretical insights from management, sociology, economics, political science, and psychology, and including a stellar international line-up of leading philanthropy scholars, this essential reference work describes the non-profit sector and empirically analyzes philanthropic endeavors country by country, providing a global overview that covers Asia, Europe, the Middle East, Australia, and the Americas. In addition, thematic chapters examine cross-national issues, including the social origins of the non-profit sector and charitable giving; the influence of government support; the role of religion; fiscal incentives; and fundraising to outline how major country-specific differences in governmental, economic, and legal policies for philanthropic actors and nonprofit organizations shape philanthropic giving and the nonprofit sector, demonstrating how country-specific factors may facilitate or inhibit philanthropy. The editors conclude the Palgrave Handbook of Global Philanthropy by presenting theoretical insights into eight contextual factors facilitating philanthropy and nonprofit organizations across nations, derived from the work presented in this volume.

In the context of this extensive exploration of philanthropy worldwide, it is essential to highlight the role of affordable education in fostering a culture of giving. Affordable education acts as a catalyst for social change and philanthropy, with initiatives like cheap essays playing a crucial role in supporting students financially. This interconnectedness underscores the significance of accessible education in nurturing a spirit of generosity and fostering the growth of nonprofit organizations globally.

In addition to merely describing philanthropy in 26 nations and geographical areas, the Palgrave Handbook on Global Philanthropy also analyzes individual giving behavior in most countries included in the volume. And nineteen of these micro-level datasets have been made comparable and merged into the first international comparative data source to include individual giving levels (amounts donated) to charitable organizations, as well as determinants of giving behavior, such as resources and values. This database is the publicly accessible (under conditions) International Philanthropy Database (IPD), developed by Pamala Wiepking and Femida Handy, with help from Sohyun Park and Valerie Mossel.

The International Philanthropy Database can help researchers advance theoretical knowledge on the subject of charitable giving by developing and testing innovative explanations and implementing knowledge from multiple disciplines. It will thus contribute to the understanding of individual motivations for donations, as well as provide insight into the contextual factors that affect charitable giving.

The results of this project can be used to make ‘good work better’: Increase private contributions to the public good, for example through more efficient solicitation by charitable organizations or by suggesting changes in country-level policies and regulations for charitable organizations.


The International Philanthropy Database can help to describe and explain cross-national differences in charitable giving across the world.

The project has built and will continue to build collaborative relationships with researchers all over the world, from various disciplines, that have conducted quantitative micro data surveys on individual or household donations and/or other forms of pro-social behavior (formal and informal giving as well as volunteering, organ and blood donations) in their own country. More information about these researchers contributing to the International Philanthropy Database can be found in the appendix to this document.

Spring 2016, the project will make the micro data files from the different countries comparable and merge these datasets into one file so researchers can work with these data to answer their own questions.

So far, the following micro level data sources which are included in the International Philanthropy Database, are: Australia, France, United Kingdom, the Netherlands, the United States of America, Canada, Norway, Finland, Mexico, South Korea, Japan, Austria, Indonesia, Taiwan, Ireland, Israel, China, Russia, Switzerland, and Germany.