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Domestic Violence and Abused Men

Introduction

Nature sustains everything in the world through a natural balance. Every balancing factor is thought to support all objects and their counterparts. Some of the aspects controlled by nature are families where men and women were created as each other’s counterpart. As companions, they are supposed to ensure that life balances and maintains a supportive system of the society. However, the balance of nature is often disturbed when one person, either a man or a woman, violates the rights of the other resulting in gender discrimination. Such discrimination is rooted in the belief that men and women have different physical and emotional strengths. Men are thought to be physically sturdy and can always conquer their female counterparts through violence and discrimination. However, this is a one-dimensional view of the scenario. Deeper observations show that the balance of nature is sometimes disturbed by women when they subject their male counterparts to domestic violence and discrimination in various ways. Statistics shows that nearly 63% of men are targets of domestic violence in the hands of their wives. Correspondingly, an approximate 39% of women are subjected to domestic violence caused by their male counterparts (Fiebert, 1997).

Background of the Study

Domestic violence against men has had a long history in our society. However, various factors have made it remain a neglected subject that receives little attention. The heart of this is the credence that men become victims of domestic violence when women retaliate in the course of self-defense. As such, many scholars have opted to study the viable means of solving violence against women rather than violence against men (Kurz, 1993). Because of existing profound social, emotional, and cultural barriers, men are less perceived as victims of domestic violence in the hands of women. The fact that men are primary victims of gender discrimination rather than females has been ignored and has become hard to believe. Usually, women are thought as unlikely violators of the rights of their male counterparts because they are classified as the weaker gender and are weaker physically and emotionally.  Men face various forms of domestic violence such as physical abuse, sexual harassment, and psychological and emotional torture, all in the hands of women. Women have a reigning power within a household, which places them a notch higher in decision-making on all matters pertaining to household affairs. Consequently, men are expected to implement all decisions made by their spouses and bear all the likely consequences. Such instances lead to exploitation of power, which is manifested in discrimination.

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Research Problem and Importance of the Study

Nowadays, the subject of domestic violence against men has received much attention and has become a topic of interest. This research paper seeks to investigate the causes, the sources, the types, and people’s perspectives of the violence against men. The effects of violence, victimization, and discrimination of men in the hands of women tend to accelerate because the victims lack access to the necessary means of avoiding the problem.  The study seeks to establish the viable ways, which can be used by men to evade the effects of domestic violence. The study will investigate whether it is possible for men to shun such victimization.

The study seeks to identify the viable prevention approaches and the resources available for men affected and seeking to avoid the effects of domestic violence. The study will also identify the resources feasible to help them when they are faced with domestic violence.

Terms and Variables

Domestic abuse and violence have been inherent parts of the community since the foundation of the civil society (Fee, Brown, & Lazarus, 2002). Many studies have suggested that women are occasionally more brutal than their male colleagues. Studies also indicate that a lot of domestic violence directed at men is based on self-defense or retaliation. Other studies believe that women cause violence against men because of anger, jealousy, and efforts to gain control and dominance (Babcock & Siard, 2003). For a better understanding of the topic, we will first define some terms.

Firstly, domestic violence denotes an array of offensive conducts between partners in an intimate relationship. The relationship can be in the terms of dating, marriage, friends, cohabitation, or family (Miller, 2005). Domestic violence can be in the form of pushing, throwing objects, hitting, and striking with objects or weapons. Secondly,there is domestic abuse. It is associated with more far-reaching outcomes. It entails sexual, psychological, financial, and emotional abuse. It occurs in the form of intimidations, aggression, and non-consensual sexual attention, as well as humiliation (Gelles, 1997).

A study of this caliber is associated with various dependent and independent variables. Dependent variables are those that are affected by independent variables. Independent variables are those that remain unchanged in the course of the study. In this study, independent variables would involve factors and aspects such as stress factors, drug and alcohol use, and exposure to prior abuse. Conversely, viable dependent variables include incidents of domestic violence against men and related aspects such as breach of peace and disorder. Another important dependent variable is assault, which acts as a measure of more serious incidences of domestic and physical violence leading to injuries.

Theoretical Approach to Domestic Violence against Men

Various scholars have proposed various theories, which have assisted in the explanation of the phenomena in different ways. Firstly, there are feminist theories, which focus on the abuse and violence against women. These arguments are based on the understanding that there is a difference in the emotional and physical strength, which fosters inequality, domination, and control. These theories propose that domestic violence is a socially learned behavior, which reinforces itself with time (Caesar & Hamberger, 1989).

Secondly, there are socio-cultural theories, which believe that men’s violence is a result of structural inequalities in the society. According to Johnson (1996), patriarchic beliefs have an extensive influence on the formation and maintenance of institutions of the modern society. Such bodies include health, legal, and educational systems. These affect the perceptions about violence against men by women. Others hold the idea that men are violent as a result of stress, which emerges from unemployment, deprivation, and changing gender roles (Canadian Panel on Violence against Women, 1993). Finally, there are the psychological theories, which are based on the development and personality attributes. Pioneers of these theories suggest that violent behaviors exhibited by people to their counterparts are a result of disrupted parenting, early exposure to trauma, depression, low self-esteem, and personality disorders. Other causes include emotional difficulties and insecure attachment styles (Hamberger & Hastings, 1993).

In spite of proposition of the above-stated theories, none of them individually is sufficient to explain the subject of domestic violence against men entirely. As such, these ideas are used in combination with each other.

 Research Methodology

The study will utilize qualitative research techniques to collect experimental data. The study will take into account cultural and social factors using specific and joint analysis to investigate the causes of violence against men. These will assist in recognizing and evaluating the causes of discrimination of men in the hands of women.

Literature Review

This research will reflect on previous studies carried out to review domestic violence and victimization against men in the hands of women. Firstly, Cook (2009) has studied the topic and acknowledged that many kinds of researches have been conducted. Nonetheless, none of the studies has been carried out in a very comprehensive way. As a news reporter, Cook has had a firsthand experience of violence against men. He feels that the subject is a hidden problem that many researchers have failed to address. Secondly, Nowinski and Bowen (2012) have suggested that violence against men continues to accelerate as many affected males are unwilling to report their abuse to the relevant authorities. Another notable scholar is Dutton (2007). He states that gender violence and discrimination is related to patriarchal societal views. Men have always been regarded as the origins of domestic violence, but this has since changed. The era when women were considered to have fewer rights has passed and led to a violation of the masculine customs of violence against men by women. Fourthly, Allen-Collinson (2009) admits that the concepts of intimate partner abuse and violence are changing, and thus men are becoming subjects of controversy and hostility by women. A common finding by all the above works of literature shows that domestic violence against men is becoming an important societal concern.

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