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Expectancy theory

Vroom's theory of expectancy basically explains the fact that when employees of any company or organization are given options to chose from they always choose the option that's likely to pay them off handsomely. The theory explains some very vital aspects of work and productivity. The author, for instance, goes ahead to state that whenever employees are faced with a responsibility or work that requires the human resource, they always get quite a number of questions crossing their minds. They normally ask themselves many questions some of them include questions that sort of aim at motivating them.

They always ask themselves whether the job they are being asked to do is ok with them, people are always concerned with whether they manage to do the job they are being asked to do. Secondly, according to the theory, people, when asked to do a certain job, another question that always comes to their mind is whether they will be rewarded after doing the job. Thirdly, when people are asked to do something or basically carry out some duty, after being told the offer that they get in return as a reward, they are always concerned with whether it's commensurate with the duty or responsibility that they are being asked to carry out. The theory further goes ahead to explain that there are three very basic elements of that the expectancy theory relies on. First is expectancy, secondly, we have instrumentality and thirdly we have an aspect of valence.

Expectancy is basically described as an individual's belief that if he or she makes a great deal of effort, a lot will be accomplished. What an individual expects when related to the effort they put in plays a very vital role in his or her behavior throughout the exercise. According to Shriberg, A. & Shriberg, A., in case an individual develops a feeling of doubt concerning whether the company will remunerate him or her sufficiently he or she is likely not to put in much effort. In most cases, this is mentality or belief is normally based on past experience, the difficulty of achieving the goal and also their self-confidence. Ones perception is normally affected by their belief that the task given to them is pretty much easy.

Instrumentality is basically how one is perceived by the organization or whoever gives them the job. Even if one puts in an effort and works hard, if the concerned authority is not interested in rewarding the worker there will be loose of motivation and less productivity. The instrumentality, in this case, is the belief that if one works hard the work of his hands will earn him some reward, for instance, a salary increase or getting a promotion alternatively they can be given recognition. This instrumentality in many instances depends on the trust that employees have in the company and some of its policies.

Valence on the other hand simply refers to how individual values whatever they have been requested to do. According to Kinicki, A & Kreitner, R,even if a worker believes that their contribution to the organization is likely to lead

to an increase in productivity and improvement in the general performance of the company and that the award is likely to be commensurate with the effort ,the worker will still be less motivated if the rewards were promised have a low valence to them. This is basically the value that a worker attaches to the job. This theory can be relevant to sales and marketing especially this paid commission. For example, the expectancy of someone in sales is his or her belief that id he manages to sell more and market the product to the extent of many people buying them the more he gets paid. If he/she feels that making more sales will not be possible due to reasons known to him or herself then he/she is very likely not to put in more effort. To the sales and marketing person their instrumentality is that making more sales will help them to earn more profits in the name of commissions. The valence in this is the importance that the sales person attaches to their commissions.

There are a few additional challenges of using the expectancy theory in today's global environment. For instance, its complexity makes it very difficult to apply to many fields. The field of management has changed because of the introduction of the expectancy theory and more managers are required to be very dynamic. Unfortunately the theory itself has not evolved that much as the world has changed. Another job that this theory would be relevant to is that of a bank manager. This job has very little motivation owing to the fact that one meets customers from all walks of life. According to Weihrich, H & Cannice, M, Job characteristics are the major predictors of work motivation and satisfaction in any profession and a bank manager is not an exception. The expectancy and instrumentality for a bank manager require a variety of skills. Skill variety is significantly and positively related to job satisfaction. As far as expectancy is concerned, a bank manager needs to demonstrate competence, the ability to make decisions, delegate duty, develop and motivate staff, communicate effectively to workers and manage your work on time. According to Wlodarczyk, A, as a good manager, he should establish and define specific objectives and desired results that should be achieved. When all this is achieved then the manager's instrumentality is felt. These are effectively communicated to staff and responsibility and resources properly delegated to achieve these outcomes. Ongoing controls are established and follow up implemented to ensure task fulfillment and completion.