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Genetic Inheritance

Introduction

Genetic inheritance refers to the passing of genes and traits to offspring from their parents. This is the process by which cells or organism of an offspring obtains or becomes predisposed to the characteristics of its parent organism or cell. Through heredity, variations exhibited by individuals can accumulate and make some species evolve. In humans, color of eyes is an example of the inherited features (Youngson, 2012). One might inherit the brown-eye trait from one of his or her parents. The inherited traits are controlled be genes. Heritable traits are passed from generation to the next one via DNA. This essay seeks to connect genetic traits to the structure of DNA. The paper will explain how DNA through the process of protein synthesis is responsible for the ultimate expression of the traits in an organism. Additionally, the paper seeks to provide a description of how errors in protein synthesis disrupts various processes in the human body and the  relation of enzymes to proper nutrition (Muers, 2012).

DNA Structure and Genetic Characteristics

The Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) acts as an organism’s instruction manual for making individuals who they are. DNA is present in all living beings. DNA carries the instructions for the synthesis of the body’s structures and materials required for normal functioning. Every organism is comprised of cells with the same DNA. This make every organism unique. Every individual has cells that contain the same DNA. DNA has ability to self-replicate and to generate an identical duplicate of itself. The nucleic acid consists of double long nucleotide chains. The chains are twisted into the double helix. DNA is a double-stranded molecule held together by weak hydrogen bonds between base pairs of nucleotides. The four nucleotides in DNA contain the bases: Adenine and Thymine, and Cytosine and Guanine. Therefore, the base sequence of each single strand can be deduced from that of its partner. Particular nucleotide sequences are a representation of specific genes, determining an individual’s hereditary traits (Tetlow, Liu & Emes, 2008).

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Protein Synthesis’s Expression of Characteristics in Organisms

Protein production is responsible for essential roles of cells. The roles range from hormonal, structural to even enzymatic. Necessary instructions for protein production by an organism are located in the DNA of chromosomes in the cell’s nucleus. However, the ribosomes are tasked with carrying out the actual protein synthesis.

During protein synthesis, the specific amino acids form a new chain. Each protein is comprised of a unique sequence of amino acids. The order of the sequence is significant in determining the structure and role of each molecule. The amino-acid sequence of a protein determines arrangement and function of the protein. The code for ordering the amino acid of a protein is written as a sequence of bases in the DNA in the nucleus (Muers, 2012).

Therefore, since the DNA does not leave the nucleus of the cell and proteins consist of ribosomes in the  cytoplasm of the cell, the instructions must be carried out of the nucleus to the cytoplasmic ribosomes. This is achieved when the double helix of DNA unwinds slightly to the area where the instructions for the particular protein are located. The short section of DNA acts as a template for ribonucleic acid (RNA), and the base pairs are changed in a process called transcription. The newly generated messenger RNA (mRNA) is responsible for the carriage of an accurate duplicate of the DNA data. The mRNA molecules are attracted to the cytoplasmic ribosomes.The base pairs of mRNA are attracted to those of the transfer RNA (tRNA). The tRNA is located in the cell’s cytoplasm. Every tRNA contributes its amino acids to the increasing amino acid chain that eventually becomes the newly synthesized protein.Translation is the process of recollection of amino acids in order to create a protein.The nucleic acid information is translated to protein information.

In conclusion, the code of DNA directs the synthesis of RNA, which subsequently directs the protein synthesis. This is referred to as the central idea of biology. There are 64 potential combinations of triplets (sequences of three nitrogenous bases), which code for 20 different possible amino acids. Since the DNA of various organisms and individuals, except identical twins, is different, the proteins synthesized by different people and other organisms exhibit differences. The different characteristics expressed make each individual unique. Offspring tends to resemble their parents since they inherit similar DNA sequences that code for the production of proteins that generate the same structures and perform the same functions (Tetlow, Liu & Emes, 2008).

Protein Synthesis Interference’s Disruption of the Bodily and Cellular processes.

Protein synthesis interference results in at least two basic kinds of disruptions – an actual deficit of a particular protein or the production of abnormal forms of that protein. Due to a wide range of the functions of protein synthesis, the consequences may manifest themselves as a disturbance in the metabolism of fats, carbohydrates or amino acids. Additionally, there may be a disturbance of protein interactions (Muers, 2012).

Clinical manifestations of some disorders may be directly associated with the deficit of a specific protein and in others the symptoms are associated indirectly with a given protein deficiency. This is specifically true in those circumstances where the deficient protein acts as an enzyme in intermediary metabolism and the symptoms of disease may be either due to deficit or accumulation of particular metabolites or electrolytes (Tetlow, Liu & Emes, 2008). In other instances, the clinical disease is associated not with the absence of a normal protein, but with the presence of an abnormal protein which functions differently from its normal analogue (Allan Drummond & Wilke, 2009).

Significance of Enzymes’ Relation to the Importance of Proper Nutrition

Enzymes are proteins obtained from food and produced by the body. The body cannot utilize vitamins and minerals without enzymes. Enzymes are required for all chemical reactions of the body. The most significant role of enzymes is to maintain the metabolic process by facilitating chemical reactions in the body in order to produce energy from the food consumed (Tetlow, Liu & Emes, 2008). There are different classes of enzymes; some of them help in food digestion and others are essential in fighting the free radical damage and oxidative stress that result from the consumption of fuel by cells. Different enzymes breakdown various food groups such as proteins, sugars, fats, fiber, lactose, sucrose and maltose.

The cycle of enzyme absorption and production starts with what a person ingests. The nutrients required for the synthesis of metabolic enzyme are obtained from the consumed food. Metabolic enzymes are produced by the body and are utilized in all stages of digestion in order to obtain nutrients from food.The significance of proper digestion cannot be stressed enough. Every part of the process works together and must be perfectly synchronized with all digestive functions. Deficiency of a particular enzyme results in an imbalance hence leading to disease (Youngson, 2012).

Conclusion

In conclusion, it is believed that in the future, the scientists and doctors will be able to utilize the genetic information to diagnose, treat and prevent many diseases. Due to proper identification of each protein, people will be able to understand better how the body works and the reasons why the body does not work properly. The knowledge is fundamental to effective drugs and treatment.

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