Intellectual property broadly means secured legal rights to the results of a person’s intellectual progress in the industrial, scientific, literary and artistic fields. The presentation mainly focuses on the description of the objects that are defended by the law of intellectual property in the United Kingdom. Intellectual activities are usually marked with a purposeful human mental work that results in creativity. Thus, the law has to defend something qualitatively new, original, and unique. The higher the intellectual potential of the individual, the more valuable the results of his/her work area. However, ideas as such are not the objects of intellectual property if they do not possess any form of expression. The presentation enlarges upon the protection of rights of the authors, scientists, and inventors to the results of their intellectual work.
Intellectual property encompasses two types of creativity – technical and artistic. Due to this reason, it is important to lay emphasis on the objects of both. Firstly, one may observe the indispensable role of trademarks, patents, designs and copyright in intellectual property. Therefore, it is evident that any aspect may have confidential information or trade secret. The presentation shows the picture of an iPhone with all its peculiarities that constitute the company’s intellectual property.
Patents as kinds of intellectual (industrial) property are still used as tools for regulating the creation and transfer of new technologies. The hackneyed myths concerning patents consist in the assumptions that they are suitable only for cranky or wacky inventions, major technological breakthroughs, or complex and advanced technologies, which is not actually true. It means that the rights of any inventor may be defended in case he/she patented his/her invention or utility model and has a specific certificate. The inventor gets the right to prevent other people from using their invention up to twenty years. However, in return, he/she pays fees to the UK government and provides the officials with the description of how the invention actually works. It ensures the possibility that the public along with the economy can benefit from future access to technology. The valuable patent hints concern some precautions in terms of making the details of innovation known before filing, using Non-Disclosure and Confidentiality agreement, and doing all the work yourself. Among the patents, one may find the results of 3D printer’s work.
A trademark is another object of intellectual property. Generally, it is any sign which is capable of being represented graphically. Nowadays trademarks are consistently present in the daily routine. Every business entity wants to have a legal means of individualization of goods and services. The reason is that economic activity is related to the need for different kinds of symbols that make it possible to distinguish between a business and their performance. Trademark can be any brandings or any combinations of signs, which are suitable for distinguishing the goods and services produced by one person from the goods and services produced and provided by others. These symbols take the form of words, letters, numerals, figurative elements, colour combinations. The most widely used classification of trademarks is used depending on the signs. Arguably, a trademark is a card in the business world. With its help, a link between producers and consumers is established; trademarks are the essential elements of market economies and fair competition. Inventors should register trademarks so that they could acquire the status of objects of intellectual property.
In addition, copyright is another important right to consider. It encompasses a tremendous variety of objects that constitute intellectual property as well. Copyright allows creators to take ownership of their own works. Copyright in the objective sense is the body of law governing the range of public relations for the creation and use of works of science, literature and art. The legislation offers a wide range of diverse creative forms of expression, which are protected. However, it is not quite limited or exhaustive; copyright might provide protection to those objects that will arise in the future due to the development of science, culture and technology and will comply with the general characteristics of the work. In the scientific literature, works of authorship are often classified according to their content. If the work is a system of concepts, it is a scientific work; if it is the system of images, it is considered a work of art. Therefore, copyright protects the following objects:
- books, manuals, technical reports, databases;
- paintings, photographs, sculptures;
- music, dramatic works, songs, plays;
- advertising, promotional literature;
- films, radio or cable broadcasts, videos, computer software, etc.
Apparently, the copyright works only if the result of intellectual property has an objective form of expression. Copyright is mainly used by writers, artists, photographers, musicians, etc. In addition, it lasts during the life of the above-mentioned figures and seventy years after their death. Not surprisingly, copyright bans reproducing its objects in any form without the owner’s consent. Among the permitted acts, one may find the use of works in studying, research, criticism, etc.
The rights for registered designs should also be taken into account. Generally, registered designs protect the external appearance of a product. In this context, it is reasonable to mention markets where registered designs actually make the products stand out comparing them to others. It is simpler and cheaper to register a design than a trademark. In addition, it lasts for twenty-five years.
In conclusion, the presentation enlarges upon certain objects of intellectual property. It shows how these particular objects contribute to public interest and economy. The presentation mentions copyright as an extensive field that reflects the importance of creativity.