Organization Behavior and Analysis
For organizations to run effectively, various resources have to be joined to aid in the realization of its goals. These resources need to be efficiently used, to avoid misuse and realize maximum output. The most sensitive and critical of these resources is a human resource. They have characteristics on the way they behave in an organization context. Organization behavior analysis is based on how people in an organization behave. These behaviors affect their performance and social relationships at their workplace. The employees of an organization tend to be involved in counterproductive and deviant behaviors at their workplace. Research has shown that 60% of employees involve themselves in stealing when they are given a chance or they look for the chances themselves. In the 1990s 48% of workers admitted that they have either lived, worked against quality controls, and cheated about sick leaves received or paid bribes at the workplace. These behaviors are costly to organizations. In the USA this deviant behavior cost businesses about $ 20 billion per year and about 30% business failures (Lotzky, Eddleston & Kidder, 2006).In this essay, various analysis on the reasons why employees participate in counterproductive and deviant behaviors have been made. Due to possible costs, some recommendations to managers are given on how to prevent and deal with the existing ones.
Counterproductive behaviors are the behaviors which reduce or affect the productivity of individual worker and the organization at large. Antisocial behavior includes behaviors which are against the social norms of the organization and the society at large example are fighting at workplace, abusive language, cheating, and lying, stealing among others. Workplace deviant behaviors are behaviors which are against expectation at the workplace. They include an elements such as production deviance, political deviant, property deviant, and personal aggression.
Apart from personal traits, there are various reasons to why employees get involved in deviant behaviors. Poor compensation and reward system are part of key causes. When employees feel to be poorly paid or inadequately rewarded they involve themselves into behaviors such as theft, non-adherence to standards controls, wasting production resources and go slow in the workplace. For example, research have indicated that for sales amounting to 130$ about 7.5$ are a fraud by employees who feel to be poorly compensated.(Litzky, Eddleston & Kidder, 2006).The need to conform to the social norms and behavior which certain groups follow encourages the member to participate into workplace deviant behavior. Political deviant takes place when some individuals are favored at the expense of others. Examples of political deviant include undercharging some customers, giving organization secret and gossiping. This causes poor services, dissatisfactions and a sense of unfairness which results to losing some key customers.
Managers can take various steps to mitigate these deviant behaviors. Justice must be practiced in the compensation; employees have to be compensated fairly depending on the work they have done and the ability of the organization. Rewards for achievement have to be fair and not discriminative fairness and equality must prevail to prevent some feeling to react against it. Examples of rewards include bonus and promotion. As those do well are rewarded the misbehaved have to be punished. The punishments have to be objective to avoid any retaliation of the persons involved.
Managers should be able to create an ethical environment where the employees are aware of what constitute unacceptable behavior by involving them in defining these behaviors. Organizational citizenship can be enhanced by the managers helping employees understand organization policies and goals. These employees will then develop a positive attitude toward the organization.
The manager who exposes the sense of mistrust to the employees may widen the gap between them and the organization. These employees feel to be a stranger in that organization and increase the chances of the involved in counterproductive behavior. Managers should develop as much trust as possible and it has to be demonstrated.
There is a correlation between personality and workplace behavior (Chuchai & Smithkrai, 2008).The workplace behaviors affected by personality trait are a thing such as theft, productive deviate, absenteeism, workplace aggression, sabotage, and fraud. These behavior are also referred to us counterproductive behavior. The effect of personality on production can be controlled by the use of various mean. Conscienceless and agreeableness of a worker, affects his performance adherence to the organization norms. Workplace behavior can also be affected by situations in hand. These situations can be information from the environment, attributes of the task, social norms and physical characteristics. Favorable situations will encourage positive work behavior, while negative situations will encourage the counterproductive behavior. Managers should put in place situations that will encourage positive workplace behavior as they try to modify individual behavior and prevent and moderate counterproductive behavior.
Abusive supervision analysis has established that there is various negative results and behavior such as, unwilling to do duties, physical aggression towards management, family aggressiveness, and psychological distress among others. Abusive supervision brings about negative attitude of subordinates affected and their commitment towards the organization is reduced greatly. The attachment of subordinate to the organization and wish to stay in such an organization is lowered to very low levels (Allen & Meyah, 2008).When subordinates cannot express their anger of abusive behavior, they then turn it to the organization and they behave against the organization's norms. It has been established that employees with a very positive attitude towards their organization, remains committed to it, and does not deviate abusive supervision aggressiveness towards the organization. The low committed subordinates tend to be organizational deviate, in the case of unreached abusive supervisors.
Mediation is one of the most effective means of dealing with organization deviant of employees. The organization should communicate the value they have for their employees, by giving them a chance to express their grievances against abusive supervision, and take action against the particular supervisor. This will ensure that those who have authority and power are controlled and restricted not to misuse it at the expense of the organization and the subordinates. Policies to deal with abusive supervision should be put in place and employees are given channels to report it.
Individuals in an organization tend to learn a lot from their coworkers, especially from work groups. Group influence can be a very strong setback to order and goals of most organizations, as it can increase individual antisocial behaviors, which are not favorable to the organization (Robinson & O'Leaky Kery, 1998). Antisocial behavior includes; issues such as sexual harassment, sabotage, stealing, absenteeism, work effort holding, lying among others, which are harmful and affects the productivity of people and groups in an organization.
The influence of group antisocial to the personal employee depends on various reasons, some strengthen and other that helps to cut the overall effect. The level of group antisocial is very relevant, the higher the level the high the influence. The similarity between the group and personal antisocial behavior is very influential; the more similar they are the more the influence and if, there is some dissimilarity the group influences to the person are moderate (Robinson & O'Leaky & Keryp, 1998). The task interdependence of people and the group can also be a reason that influences antisocial behavior. Highly interdependent tasks have high levels of the antisocial relationship among the members and the group at large.
Management can apply various techniques to reduce and moderate the relationship between group influences to the individual worker. Punishment of the deviant behavior should be emphasized by the management. This will help to moderate the level of group influence, as people will be punished alone and hence, they will avoid as much as possible to be punished. Close supervision should be practiced, where there are high chances of group influence to individual behavior. The closer the supervision the less the group influence than where there is no supervision. The management can also cut the time that an individual stays in a group. It has been established that those who stay in a group for long, are highly influenced by the group. The more they stay the more they learn antisocial behavior.
Work environment affects work behavior of individuals in an organization. It has both the negative influence and positive impact. The positive influence is favorable to the organization and fosters organizational citizenship, while negative influence fosters counterproductive behavior (Fodchuk, 2007). Issues such as organization justice, opportunities, and internal control system are important factors that define the organization environment. Organization justice is the feeling that fairness has been done to each individual in an organization. If practiced, every individual worker will feel to be equally important and they develop a sense of belonging to the organization and hence, organization citizenship is developed. These individuals direct their energy towards organization goals, increasing productivity and efficiency. When workers feel that injustices exist in their organization, they tend to be deviant and they develop counterproductive behavior, which is harmful to the organization. The workers who feel injustice have been done against them, develop negative behaviors such as stealing, fewer efforts towards work, emotional distress and to some extent physical violence.
Job design has a great implication on opportunities given to the employee in an organization. The opportunity was given to employees to decide what, how and when to do their work can increase their organization citizenship and productivity is enhanced. Job design with autonomy does not give workers the opportunity to fully exercise their capacity and their productivity is restricted. These workers tend to redirect their energy to counterproductive activities due to job dissatisfaction.
Due to a complexity of an organization, management must set up internal control to safeguard the assets, maintain order and ensure rules are followed. However, if not well monitored they can have negative impacts and their benefits may not be realized. For organizations to realize the benefits, they have to be fully supported by the employees who implement it. If employees support the system, they will help to develop the organizational citizenship and the benefits are realized. If the systems are not appealing, employees will feel to be targeted and will not act in the best interest of the organization.
Certain unfavorable situations require integrity of employers, to cut the effect they may have on the organization. Unfavorable situations, such as layoffs need to be well-managed, and the affected people should be helped to view and understand the reasons and the positive side of them. The affected employees may feel that injustice has been done to them and retaliate bad mouthing, legal action, and violence against the organization or its agents. It has been established that information justice helps to cut the possibility of retaliation. This refers to the explanation that the affected employee(s) about the unfortunate outcome. The more and better explanation the employer is able to give, the more retaliation is reduced due to the satisfaction they get. The prior perceived integrity of employer and his ability to communicate will determine how effective the informational justice will be.
Employees as social beings learn a lot from social set up. It has been established that coworker has great influence of personal behavior of each person in an organization. Close coworkers bad mouthing, organization cynicism and supervisor assessment affects adversely the organizational citizen behavior.Close coworkers tend to be a learning point of new employees, who listen to what they say to be able to learn more about their employer and the organization in general. Close workers bad mouthing is ill talking about the organization and hence, new employers tend to have the same feeling about their employer. The new employee will only not perceive the organization on the basis of the information from coworkers, depending on their ability to search for more facts and his or her personal traits. If the new employees take the bad mouthing to be the facts, they will also develop counterproductive behavior.
Organization cynicism is the negative attitude towards the organization that has employed them, their rules, process, and management.This attitude is derived from the past experience of the employee, the ill mouthing, unfairness in the organization. Organization features may not also be appealing to some employees, these employees tend to develop a negative attitude towards the organization. Bad mouthing behavior and organizational cynicism of close focal coworkers, can influence the intensity of the organizational cynicism of a given employees. The output is affected greatly due to reduced trust to the management and the organization, and of goodwill to take part fully by most of the employees. This unfortunate behavior can be reduced by proper social, task psychological and emotional support (Wikerson, Davas & Evans, 2008).New employees should be given proper orientation and emphasis should be put where existing employees ill talk about. They should also not be assigned to work with the most focal employees who are likely to bad mouth about certain issues but the royal employees are the most appropriate to assign new employees as the coworkers.
Injustice can be very expensive to the organization especially when the offended employees decide to revenge against it. These employees involve in such activities, such as theft, time-wasting, lack of respect to supervisors and ignoring their orders. These are counterproductive work behavior, which results in poor performance and lack of order at workplace. To some extent, employees who perceive the injustice have been done to them may address the same, by the use physical means directed to their supervisors. This results into fighting at workplace and physical destruction of property.
Due to costs that are likely to be incurred by the organization, injustice must be dealt with before revenge takes place. It is clear that where there is justice there is no peace unity and development does not take place. It was established that avenging actually takes place some weeks after the first wish to avenge was experienced and sometimes after an injustice have been repeated severally.The perpetrators of injustice have to be punished and the action taken by the management, communicated to the affected employee in good time in a way that they will feel satisfied, and to see that justice has been done. Subordinates should be given channels through which they address their grievances, and the management should be ready to discuss them without favor.
In conclusion, it has been established that dealing with counterproductive and workplace deviate behavior is a complex function of management. The essay identifies five main causes of deviant behavior; compensation, group influence, management injustices, abusive supervision and poor employers integrity. It is also established in this essay the ways the manager can use to mitigate counterproductive behavior and their costs.
Managers should ensure there are compensation and reward policies to ensure fair pay to employees. Groups are very important in the organization but managers should be able to control them as much as possible this will reduce their negative effects. Fairness treatment by managers will greatly help to develop good work relationship facilitating production as counter production behaviors reduced. The employer should also try to bring their employees as close as possible and involve themselves into acceptable behavior. In this case, they will be a good example to their employees who will then avoid being involved in compromised behaviors. Last but not least, abusive supervisors have to be dealt with to ensure justice is practiced and the aggrieved employee to be satisfied. Such supervisors should be punished and the action taken by the management communicated to the subordinate affected. The would is dynamic managers need to review the strategies they use to mitigate counterproductive behaviors and reduce the unidentified costs.