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Exam on Hinduism

  1. In Hinduism, Brahman is the concept of a Supreme Reality. It transcends all definitions and it is considered to be the ultimate principle that controls the whole universe. However, this concept continuously changes with time. Today, it is becoming more of a passive concept rather than an active principle as it was in past ages. There is no central or full definition of what Brahman is. It is an indescribable being, idea, or thought.
  2. Nirguna Brahman is the impersonal aspect of the Ultimate Reality. It has no attributes and, as such, it is not an object of prayer, but of meditation and knowledge. It is an aspect of Ultimate Reality that cannot be conceived, and cannot be explained.
  3. Saguna Brahman is the personal aspect of the Ultimate Reality. This Brahman has attributes which is not limited by one form. It is believed to be the creator, the sustainer and the controller of the universe. It is worshipped in both male and female forms.
  4. The Hindu Trinity is composed of Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva. Hindus believe that Brahma is the creator; Vishnu is the preserver; and Shiva is the destroyer of the universe. Furthermore, they are also aligned as the transcendent Godhead, Shiva, the cosmic lord, Vishnu and the cosmic mind, Brahma. This concept is the same as the Holy Trinity of the Christian religion which includes God the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit. Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva are three beings that represent the Divine.
  5. Brahman is similar to the Christian God in some ways such as they are both seen as the Ultimate Being. However, Brahman is considered to be the Ultimate Reality that is not separated from anything. While the Christian God is believed to be a separate entity that rules and judges the universe.
  6. No, because Hinduism believes in only one supreme being who has manifested and taken many forms like one body with many different parts. Each part has its own role and that it is a part of one supreme being.
  7. Vedanta is speculated to be "the purpose or goal [end] of the Vedas." It is not to be mistaken as only one book because no one book can be a source of Vedantic philosophy.
  8. Advaita Vedanta is probably the most known of all the Vedanta schools of Hinduism. It is a monistic or non-dualistic system which essentially refers to the indivisibility of the Self (Atman) from the Whole (Brahman). The Brahman which is considered to be the ultimate is the self.
  9. Advaita Vedanta is based on one primary scripture which is Gospel of Shri Ramakrishna (Shri Ramakrishna Kathamrita).
  10. Bhakti Devotion is the powerful emotion of the mind that believes in the ultimate power of the one above us. It is characterized by love, trust, faith, loyalty, devotion and reverence that is manifested towards an external entity such as a god or a family member. In spiritual terms, it means intense spiritual love and devotion to a god.
  11. Bhakti is based on the primary scripture, Bhagavata Purana.
  12. Krishna Consciousness International believes in the devotion that mediates to the god Krishna. While the Self-realization Fellowship advocates practice of disciplined Kriya Yoga as the path to realization of the good within, the true self.
  13. The Self-Realization Fellowship Service is a service which includes a combination of readings from Paramahansa Yoganandas writings, as well as periods of devotional chanting, silent meditation, and prayer.
  14. Self Realization is the conclusion of all things spiritual. It is the end of cosmic journey. Self Realization announces it is time for our soul (atman) within the body to get liberated forever from the cycle of birth and death.
  15. Satchidananda is a term used to describe the nature of Brahman in reference to the experience of a fully liberated yogi or saint. It can also refer to the energetic state of non-duality, a manifestation of our spiritually natural, authentic state which is comparable in quality to that of god.
  16. The idea of our many bodies is in relation to the belief of reincarnation. It is believed that a soul reincarnates again and again, going to many bodies until it is perfect. Once it is perfect, it reunites with its Source.
  17. Chakras are believed to be "force-centers" or whirls of energy permeating in certain parts of the body. They are considered to be the focal points of energy reception and transmission.
  18. Chakra healing is basically alignment or balancing of chakras. It is commonly balanced through yoga and meditation. Also, crystals can also be used to balance energies in the body.
  19. Sri Aurobindo is an Indian nationalist and freedom fighter, also a philosopher and yogi. He developed his own vision and philosophy that centres in the idea of a "life divine". He revolutionized Hinduism into a more complex way. He believed in the idea that human beings are destined to achieve an evolutionary existence which is called a "Divine life on Earth". It is characterized by a spiritualized, supramental, truth-consciousness-oriented humanity.
  20. Father Bede Griffiths was a monk who was considered to be a person who has a universal heart. He was an icon of integrity and guilelessness. He is also considered to be one of the great spiritual leaders of the 20th century.

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